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All the civil engineering structures whether buildings, dams, bridges, etc. are built on soils. A base is required to transmit the load of the structures on a large area of soil. The base of the structure should be designed so that the ground below will not fail in the shear nor will there be an excessive settlement of the structure. The conventional method of foundation design is based on the concept of load capacity. The soil is considered by the engineer as a complex material produced by the weathering of solid rock. The soil is the most important material used for the construction of civil engineering structures. Among all the parameters, the load capacity of the soil to support the load over unit area important. There are several methods to calculate the soil carrying capacity presented by the specialist. The main factors that influence the ultimate load capacities are the type of soil, the foundation width, the weight of the soil in the cutting area and the surcharge. Structural rigidity and contact voltage distribution do not greatly influence the load capacity. The analysis of the load capacity assumes a uniform contact pressure between the foundation and the underlying soil. With other factors unchanged, the type of soil failure, the depth of foundation and the effect of groundwater table control the bearing capacity of the soil.
When a soil is stressed due to loading, it tends to deform. The resistance to soil deformation depends on factors such as water content, bulk density, internal friction angle and the way the load is applied to the ground. The maximum load per unit area that the earth or rock can transport without yielding or moving is called bearing soil capacity. Soil properties, such as cut resistance, density, permeability, etc., affect the load capacity of the soil, dense sand will have more load capacity than loose sand as a unit
A concrete pile is basically a long cylinder in reinforced concrete that is buried in the ground to act as a stable support for the structures that will be built on top of a platform supported by one or more of said cylinders. The set is known as foundation piles or deep foundations.
Pile foundations are mainly required for tall buildings as the design loads are too large to be supported on spread footings. Sometimes, when the soil has low SBC or the soil is clayey, a raft or a pile foundation may be the solution.
Piles can by classified in 3 ways:
If bedrock or hard strata is present within reasonable depth, piles can be extended to rest on the bedrock or penetrate required depth into the hard strata. In this case, the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile depends entirely on the underlying rock/strata.
In a friction pile, the load on pile is resisted mainly by skin friction along the pile shaft. Pure friction piles tend to be longer than point bearing piles. Resistance is a function of the shaft area in contact with the soil. In cohesion-less soils, such as sands of medium to low density, friction piles are often used to increase soil density. When hard strata are not available at reasonable depth, end bearing piles are uneconomical. For this type of subsoil condition, piles are driven through the softer material to required depth.
They are usually pre-cast before being driven or hammered into the ground. This category consists of driven piles of steel or concrete and piles formed by driving tubes or shells which are fitted with a drive shoe.
These piles require a hole to be drilled first and into which the pile is then formed usually of reinforced concrete.
Low initial cost compared to concrete piles, permanently submerged piles are resistant to rot/decay, handling is easier, these are best suited as friction piles.
Splicing is difficult, piles are vulnerable to damage especially while hard driving, piles are vulnerable to decay unless it is below permanent water table as is usually the case. if subjected to alternate wetting & drying, life can be short.
These are commonly used in marine and other structures. Maximum length is practically unlimited. They have a comparatively larger load capacity.
Larger capacity, best suited for end bearing, easy to splice, small displacement, able to penetrate through light obstructions
An underground (U/G) tank is a container that can be used for storing a liquid without appreciable loss by leakage through its walls or base. Various underground water tanks are U/G components of a sewage treatment plant, swimming pools, sumps, oily water sewers, sulfur pits, manholes and catch basins.
Water tanks are used to provide storage of water for use in a number of applications. The structural design of a water tank includes design parameters such as concrete grade, reinforcement grade, soil parameters, water table and edge support conditions of the tank walls. The tank slab and wall thicknesses mainly are decided based on the edge shears and bending moments. Generally, reinforcement consists of 2 orthogonal layers on each face with adequate concrete covers. Crack control check is a necessary check in u/g tank design. Testing for leakage is an obligatory test is u/g tank design.
In general, underground water tanks are used for various purposes such as storage of potable drinking water, wastewater, rainwater collection, housing underground tanks, and vessels etc. The outer walls generally are required to retain outer soil and groundwater and sometimes a surcharge load that may come from construction vehicles moving in the vicinity of u/g tank.
Filling a newly constructed underground water tank while backfilling on the outer side reduces the differential pressure between the outside and the inside of the tank, thus, minimizing
If you have not heard of PhonePe, this is what you are missing out on. In fact, a digital cashless payment economy is the future. PhonePe from flipkart is at the forefront of this revolutionary change. To fulfill your desires at different times, Flipkart offers multiple payment methods that include COD, Internet banking, or credit and debit card payments. To simplify online payments, Flipkart offering the PhonePe wallet application. Launched in partnership with YES Bank, PhonePe allows you to link bank accounts. Download the app from the Google Play Store and use it as an online wallet to handle all your transactions.
PhonePe is based on the Government backed Unified Payment Interface (UPI) platform. UPI is based on the IMPS (Immediate Payment Service) infrastructure and allows you to transfer money between two parties bank accounts by using unique identifiers such as mobile number or VPAwithout using the account numbers or IFSC codes. This makes it easier to send or receive money. Simply enter the mobile number of a receiver and send money instantly to your bank account!
About 30 major banks are live on the UPI platform, including banks with large networks such as State Bank of India, HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and more. When you link your bank account to your PhonePe application, all you need to do is share (and verify) your mobile number and bank name, and UPI will retrieve account details from your bank through a secure network. If your bank account is not active with UPI, you cannot add your bank account to the PhonePe application. However, you can receive refunds of Flipkart / Myntra in your PhonePe wallet.
3. Multiple authentication
Through the PhonePe UPI application, you can instantly send and receive money using a VPA ( Virtual Payment Address). This means that you can also transfer money between two banks accounts. You can also pay directly from your bank account to online and offline merchants. The best part is you don't need to enter credit or debit card details, only one time password, your bank's IFSC code or any other detail.
It is easy to get excited about saving money with coupons. When you look back on your earliest couponing days, you may get realize now that you are addicted to watching your total balance at the record. It is so incredibly fulfilling to proof your clipping and coupon-printing efforts make a variation in your bank account. There is exactly nothing wrong by your savings, but make sure you are handling your time and money carefully. Avoid making these typical mistakes, and sharp your skills so you will be the couponing boss that you are.
Don’t enter into a store blindly without aware what type of coupons the store will accepts and to what range. Few goods have double coupons, while others goods may have limited discounts on "Buy one get one offer". Be the expert when you reach your checkout point and must have a printed copy of the policy for reference.
Buying goods because you have a coupon. There are number of coupons for thousands of products and chances are you won't like all of them. Because you have a coupon for an item doesn't mean that you must buy it. Use the thumb rule to follow when using coupons is to buy the products you like, get try to use the coupons when the items are on sale, and if the general is cheaper, buy general.
Genius shoppers stock up on items that they will know to use regularly, however clearing the store shelves of goods just because of you may have coupons for all of them can be wasteful and also results in the stores difficult coupon acceptance policies.